Vaginitis doesn’t always have clear causes. Manny times it is the result of an infection by pathogens like bacteria or fungi, which either come from the rectum and migrate to the vagina through the perineum or they find the opportunity to develop because of some disturbances in the normal flora of the vagina.
In many cases vaginitis appears when the pH equilibrium in the area is disturbed.
Many factors can contribute to this disturbance like pregnancy, menopause, the time before menstruation, medication such as antibiotics, stress, perfumed soap and tight clothing.
The vaginitis causes can be:
- Viruses. As the HPV virus and the genital herpes .
- Various microbes (e.g. klebsiella, e.coli).
- Bacteria (e.g. Gardnerella vaginalis).
- Fungi. They are the most common cause. 75% of women had once in their lifetime vaginitis caused by fungi.
- Trichomonas. Vaginitis is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis.
- Chlamydia. They can cause side effects and complications but subside easily with use of antibiotics.
- Mycoplasm (ureaplasma, hominis). It is responsible for miscarriages.
- Atrophic vaginitis. It is observed in women with no female hormones (in menopause or before puberty).