Bleaching ointments: Topical treatment with bleaching agents improves discolouration, but incorrect use can create skin irritation and also show hyperpigmentation.
Chemical peels: Chemical peeling removes excess melanin from the skin. However, great care is required in its application as there is a risk of causing irritation and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
Dermabrasion: With dermabrasion, the epidermis is regenerated, as the part showing the discolouration is removed.
Laser: Melanin exhibits a wide range of radiation absorption, thus allowing the use of various types of lasers as therapeutic means. The CO2 laser causes an exfoliation of the skin’s water, thereby removing the pigment that causes hyperpigmentation. The initial application of a CO2 laser can target the hyperpigmentation of the epidermis causing minimal thermal damage to the deeper layers of the skin while, subsequently, the application of a pulsed dye laser can more effectively target the pigments found in the dermis.